Vitamin B12 is a water-soluble vitamin. It can dissolve in water. It is one of the B-complex vitamins. The B complex includes:

pantothenic acid
folic acid

Cobalamin is the general name for vitamin B12.

What food source is the nutrient found in?
Vitamin B12 is found in animal foods, fortified foods, and some fermented foods. Some sources of B12 are:

dairy products
tempeh and miso, which both come from soy

How does the nutrient affect the body?
Vitamin B12 helps the body:

make red blood cells, with folic acid, another B-vitamin
work with many chemicals found in all body cells
copy the genetic code within each cell
form and maintain the nervous system
build and maintain protective coating around nerves
digest and use fats, carbohydrates, and some proteins for energy
form neurotransmitters in the brain, such as serotonin, that help regulate mood, sleep, and appetite

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The Truth about Supplements

Despite the impressive marketing claims by sports supplement vendors and pro bodybuilders who are sponsored by them, most sports supplements sold to bodybuilders simply do not work. The only effects they have on you are the placebo effect (a positive effect based solely on the power of suggestion) and the financial effect (you are basically sponsoring the sport when you buy supplements, which is of course a good thing). The only sports supplements of which I believe that they may have real beneficial effects for bodybuilders are those discussed below.

The only sport supplement that I believe is really beneficial to all bodybuilders is protein powder, because protein is really an essential nutrient for muscle growth. I consider protein powder as a food product rather than a supplement, because it is isolated from natural food products such as milk and eggs.

The only other sport supplement that true natural bodybuilders could benefit from is creatine monohydrate. However, I do not think that creatine supplementation has any long term beneficial effects.

I believe that all other sports supplements currently on the market have no significant benefit for bodybuilders, do not work at all, or should not be part of true natural bodybuilding.

Note that it is well possible to eliminate the need for sports supplements completely, simply by eating large enough quantities of meat and/or fish. By eating about 1 lb of meat and/or fish per day you fully cover your daily needs of quality protein and creatine, eliminating the need for any supplementation. Eating such high amounts of meat or fish can, however, have a few disadvantages: meat and fish can contain lots of saturated fats and cholesterol, they can be rather costly, and take lots of time for preparing and eating.

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Taking Supplements Will Make You Look Monstrous And Ripped In No Time Myth


We are constantly bombarded with ads for a wide variety of supplements. Some promise you a tight, ripped middle, while others ensure that you can pack on pounds of new muscle over the course of just a few weeks. There may be some benefits to a few of these supplements, but more often than not, your results won’t be much better than those you would get from a good training program combined with a well-planned out diet.

These are truly the two factors that lead to the greatest gains, so you should focus most of your energy on them rather than on finding the latest magic pill. Also, some supplements can have very harmful side effects (such as infertility, increased heart rate and nervous system problems) that should not be taken lightly. You are far better off achieving your results naturally; remember that your long-term health is not something you should risk.

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The Truth About Creatine and Glutamine


Meaning of Supplement: Make up for a deficiency in your diet.

Once your back on track with what ever deficiency you have in your diet, you should go back to eating real natural food for all your nutritional requirements.

1.Creatine Monohydrate


Creatine is a naturally occurring amino acid (protein building block) that’s found in meat and fish, and also made by the human body in the liver, kidneys, and pancreas. It is converted into creatine phosphate or phosphocreatine and stored in the muscles, where it is used for energy. During high-intensity, short-duration exercise, such as lifting weights or sprinting, phosphocreatine is converted into ATP, a major source of energy within the human body.

Creatine supplements are popular among body builders and competitive athletes. It is estimated that Americans spend roughly $14 million per year on creatine supplements. The attraction of creatine is that it may increase lean muscle mass and enhance athletic performance, particularly during high-intensity, short-duration sports (like high jumping and weight lifting).

However, not all human studies have shown that creatine improves athletic performance. Nor does every person seem to respond the same way to creatine supplements. For example, people who tend to have naturally high stores of creatine in their muscles don’t get an energy-boosting effect from extra creatine. Preliminary clinical studies also suggest that creatine’s ability to increase muscle mass and strength may help combat muscle weakness associated with illnesses such as heart failure and muscular dystrophy.


Athletic performance

Although not all clinical studies agree, some conducted in both animals and people have shown that creatine supplements improve strength and lean muscle mass during high-intensity, short-duration exercises (such as weight lifting). In these studies, the positive results were seen mainly in young people (roughly 20 years of age). Most human studies have taken place in laboratories, not in people actually playing sports. Creatine does not seem to improve performance in exercises that requires endurance (like running) or in exercise that isn’t repeated, although study results are mixed.

Although creatine is not banned by the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) or the International Olympic Committee, using it for athletic performance is controversial. The NCAA prohibits member schools from giving creatine and other muscle building supplements to their athletes, although it doesn’t ban athletes from using it. The French Agency of Medical Security for Food (AFSSA) asserts that the use of creatine supplements is “against the spirit of sportsmanship and fair competition.”

Creatine appears to be generally safe, although when it is taken at high doses there is the potential for serious side effects such as kidney damage and the risk of inhibiting the body’s natural formation of creatine.

Also of concern is the marketing of creatine-containing supplements directly to teens, with claims about changing one’s body with little effort. One survey conducted with college students found that teen athletes frequently exceed the recommended loading and maintenance doses of creatine. Meanwhile, neither safety nor effectiveness in those under 19 has ever been tested.

Heart disease

A preliminary clinical study suggests that creatine supplements may help lower levels of triglycerides (fats in the blood) in men and women with abnormally high concentrations of triglycerides.

In a few clinical studies of people with congestive heart failure, those who took creatine (in addition to standard medical care) saw improvement in the amount of exercise they could do before becoming fatigued, compared to those who took placebo. Getting tired easily is one of the major symptoms of congestive heart failure. One clinical study of 20 people with congestive heart failure found that short-term creatine supplementation in addition to standard medication lead to an increase in body weight and an improvement of muscle strength.

Creatine has also been reported to help lower levels of homocysteine. Homocysteine is a marker of potential heart disease, including heart attack and stroke.

Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)

In one double-blind study, people with COPD who took creatine increased muscle mass, muscle strength and endurance, and improved their health status compared with those who took placebo. They did not increase their exercise capacity. More studies are needed to see whether creatine has any benefit for people with COPD.

Muscular dystrophy

People who have muscular dystrophy may have less creatine in their muscle cells, which may contribute to muscle weakness. One study found that taking creatine resulted in a small improvement in muscle strength. However, other studies have found no effect.

Parkinson’s disease

People with Parkinson’s disease have decreased muscular fitness including decreased muscle mass, muscle strength, and increased fatigue. A small clinical study found that giving creatine to people with Parkinson’s disease improved their exercise ability and endurance. In another clinical study, creatinine supplementation improved patients’ moods and led to a smaller dose increase of drug therapy. More research is needed in this area.

Dietary Sources:

About half of the creatine in our bodies is made from other amino acids in the liver, kidney and pancreas, while the other half comes from foods we eat. Wild game is considered to be the richest source of creatine, but lean red meat and fish (particularly herring, salmon, and tuna) are also good sources.
Available Forms:

Supplements are commonly sold as powders, although liquids, tablets, capsules, energy bars, fruit-flavored chews, drink mixes, and other preparations are also available.
How to Take It:


Safety and effectiveness have not been tested in those under 19. Creatine supplements are not recommended for children or teens.


Loading dose in exercise performance (for adults ages 19 and older): Take 5g of creatine monohydrate, 4 times daily (20s total daily) for one week.

Maintenance dose in exercise performance (for adults ages 19 and older): Take 2 – 5g daily.

For cholesterol reduction (for adults ages 19 and older): Take 20 – 25g daily, for 5 days, followed by 5 – 10g daily thereafter.

Your body may absorb creatine better when you take it with carbohydrate foods (such as fruits, fruit juices, and starches). The doses mentioned have been tested frequently in athletes. However, it is not known whether these dosages have the same effects in non-athletes.


Because of the potential for side effects and interactions with medications, dietary supplements should be taken only under the supervision of a knowledgeable health care provider.

Side effects of creatine include weight gain, muscle cramps, muscle strains and pulls, stomach upset, diarrhea, dizziness, high blood pressure, liver dysfunction, and kidney damage. Most studies have found no significant side effects at the doses used for up to six months.

Rhabdomyolysis (breakdown of skeletal muscle tissue) and acute kidney failure was reported in one case involving an athlete taking more than 10 grams daily of creatine for 6 weeks. People with kidney disease, high blood pressure, or liver disease should avoid creatine.

Taking creatine supplements may prevent the body from making its own natural stores, although the long-term effects are not known. The Food & Drug Administration recommends talking to your doctor before starting to take creatine.

There have been reports of contaminated creatine supplements. Be sure to buy products made by established companies with good reputations.

Possible Interactions:

If you are currently being treated with any of the following medications, you should not use creatine without first talking to your health care provider.

Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) — Creatine may increase the risk of damage if taken with these pain relievers, such as ibuprofen (Motrin, Advil) or naproxen (Aleve).

Caffeine — Caffeine may inhibit the body’s ability to use creatine. Taking creatine and caffeine may increase risk of dehydration. Using creatine, caffeine, and ephedra (a substance that has been banned in the U.S. but that was used in sports supplements) may increase the risk of stroke.

Diuretics (water pills) — Taking creatine with diuretics may increase the risk of dehydration and kidney damage.

Cimetidine (Tagamet) — Taking creatine while taking Tagamet may increase the risk of kidney damage.

Probenicid — Taking creatine while taking probenecid (a drug used to treat gout) may increase the risk of kidney damage.


Glutamine is the most abundant amino acid (building block of protein) in the body. The body can make enough glutamine for its regular needs, but extreme stress (the kind you would experience after very heavy exercise or an injury), your body may need more glutamine than it can make. Most glutamine is stored in muscles followed by the lungs, where much of the glutamine is made.

Glutamine is important for removing excess ammonia (a common waste product in the body). It also helps your immune system function and appears to be needed for normal brain function and digestion.

You can usually get enough glutamine without taking a supplement, because your body makes it and you get some in your diet. Certain medical conditions, including injuries, surgery, infections, and prolonged stress, can lower glutamine levels, however. In these cases, taking a glutamine supplement may be helpful.

Woundhealing and recovery from illness

When the body is stressed (from injuries, infections, burns, trauma, or surgical procedures), it releases the hormone cortisol into the bloodstream. High levels of cortisol can lower your body’ s stores of glutamine. Several studies show that adding glutamine to enteral nutrition (tube feeding) helps reduce the rate of death in trauma and critically ill people. Clinical studies have found that glutamine supplements strengthen the immune system and reduce infections (particularly infections associated with surgery). Glutamine supplements may also help in the recovery of severe burns.

Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD)

Glutamine helps to protect the lining of the gastrointestinal tract known as the mucosa. For that reason, some have suggested that people who have inflammatory bowel disease (ulcerative colitis and Crohn’ s disease) may not have enough glutamine. However, two clinical trials found that taking glutamine supplements did not improve symptoms of Crohn’ s disease. More research is needed. In the meantime, ask your doctor when deciding whether to use glutamine for IBD.


People with HIV or AIDS often experience severe weight loss (particularly loss of muscle mass). A few studies of people with HIV and AIDS have found that taking glutamine supplements, along with other important nutrients including vitamins C and E, beta-carotene, selenium, and N-acetylcysteine, may increase weight gain and help the intestines better absorb nutrients.


Athletes who train for endurance events (like marathons) may reduce the amount of glutamine in their bodies. It’ s common for them to catch a cold after an athletic event. Some experts think that may be because of the role glutamine plays in the immune system. For this select group of athletes, one study showed that taking glutamine supplements resulted in fewer infections. The same is not true, however, for most exercisers who work out at a much more moderate intensity.


Many people with cancer have low levels of glutamine. For this reason, some researchers speculate that glutamine may be helpful when added to conventional cancer treatment for some people. Supplemental glutamine is often given to malnourished cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy or radiation treatments and sometimes used in patients undergoing bone marrow transplants. (See Interactions below.)

Glutamine seems to help reduce stomatitis (an inflammation of the mouth) caused by chemotherapy. Some studies, but not all, have suggested that taking glutamine orally may help reduce diarrhea associated with chemotherapy.

More clinical research is needed to know whether use of glutamine is safe or effective to use as part of the treatment regimen for cancer.
Dietary Sources:

Dietary sources of glutamine include plant and animal proteins such as beef, pork and poultry, milk, yogurt, ricotta cheese, cottage cheese, raw spinach, raw parsley, and cabbage.
Available Forms:

Glutamine, usually in the form of L-glutamine, is available by itself or as part of a protein supplement. These come in powder, capsule, tablet, or liquid form.

Standard preparations are typically available in 500 mg tablets or capsules.
How to Take It:

Take glutamine with cold or room temperature foods or liquids. It should not be added to hot beverages because heat destroys glutamine.


For children 10 years and younger: Do not give glutamine to a child unless your doctor recommends it as part of a complete amino acid supplement.

For children 10 – 18 years: Doses of 500 mg, 1 – 3 times daily, are generally considered safe.


For adults ages 18 and older: Doses of 500, 1 – 3 times daily, are generally considered safe. Doses as high as 5,000 – 15,000 mg daily (in divided doses) may be prescribed by a health care provider.

As an oral rinse for radiation therapy-induced mucositis and chemotherapy-induced stomatitis: Place 16 gm (one tablespoonful) of glutamine powder in 240 ml (8 ounces) normal saline or sterile water and mix. Then, swish 30 – 60 ml (1 – 2 ounces) and spit out, 4 times a day.

Because of the potential for side effects and interactions with medications, dietary supplements should be taken only under the supervision of a knowledgeable health care provider.

Glutamine appears to be safe in doses up to 14 g or higher per day.

Glutamine powder should not be added to hot beverages because heat destroys this amino acid. Glutamine supplements should also be kept in a dry location.

People with kidney disease, liver disease, or Reye syndrome (a rare, sometimes fatal disease of childhood that is generally associated with aspirin use) should not take glutamine.

Many elderly people have decreased kidney function and may need to reduce the dose of glutamine.

Glutamine is different from glutamate (glutamic acid), monosodium glutamate, and gluten. Glutamine should not cause symptoms (headaches, facial pressure, tingling, or burning sensation) associated with sensitivity to monosodium glutamate. People who are gluten sensitive can use glutamine without problems.
Possible Interactions:

If you are currently being treated with any of the following medications, you should not use glutamine supplements without first talking to your health care provider.

Cancer therapy — Glutamine may increase the effectiveness and reduce the side effects of chemotherapy treatments with doxorubicin, methotrexate, and 5-fluorouracil in people with colon cancer. Preliminary clinical studies suggest that glutamine supplements may prevent nerve damage associated with a medication called paclitaxel, used for breast and other types of cancers.

However, laboratory studies suggest that glutamine may actually stimulate growth of tumors. Much more research is needed before it is known whether it is safe to use glutamine if you have cancer.

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Supplements are peddled as the holy grail for natural weight lifters. The mentality that muscle building magazines would like you to buy into is…If you could only find the right combination of supplements, then your gains would skyrocket. This isn’t true. Gains, and program success, have little to do with supplement intake. In fact, most lifters can experience great success with no supplements at all.

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